HRW Home Background Kashmir has been at the heart of a territorial dispute between India and Pakistan since the two nations gained their independence in
X Kashmir Please note that information on this pages relates to peacebuilding groups in India-administered parts of Jammu and Kashmir.
For peacebuilding groups based in Pakistan-administered parts of Baltistan and Kashmir, please see the Pakistan section of our site. Peace Direct, the publisher of this site, takes no position on the differing territorial claims in this region and instead publishes this information to draw attention to the work of peacebuilding organisations.
Conflict profile Born from the partition of India inthe conflict in Kashmir continues today, involving three nuclear powers - China, India and Pakistan - who are in dispute over the territory.
The conflict is set against the backdrop of the Himalayan mountains and valleys and involves a patchwork of languages, religions and ethnicities: The dispute over the region has continued for more than six decades, at huge cost.
Since the insurgency — 42 years after the partition — there are estimated to be at least 70, dead and 8, missing by local human rights group CCS. Today Kashmiris face life alongside a huge military presence and ongoing militia operations. Although a ceasefire agreement was made between India and Pakistan inand the s saw internal violence largely give way to non-violent protest, the calm is often punctuated by military and insurgent operations from both sides.
Since the Mumbai attacks by Pakistani militants, there have been numerous violent incidents between India and Pakistan along the border, leading to a statement by the Indian defence minister A.
Pakistan controls 37 per cent of Kashmir, namely Azad Kashmir and the northern areas of Gilgit and Baltistan. The Shaksam Valley, which China claims, is part of Tibet.
The Maharaja delayed his decision to accede to either India or Pakistan in an effort to remain independent, but was forced to choose when internal revolt in the Poonch region turned into an organised rebellion of the majority Muslim population. Mass killings of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims throughout the year led to hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing their homes where they were in the religious minority, and culminated in Pathan tribesmen and the Poonch rebels invading Kashmirkilling large numbers in Baramula.
Even though Kashmir had a large Muslim majority, the Maharaja eventually signed the Instrument of Accession putting Jammu and Kashmir under Indian control, allowing India to send in forces to repel the Pakistani presence and kick-start the war. This move was, as suggested and accepted by India, supposed to be temporary until a plebiscite could be conducted which would enable the Kashmiri people to choose who would rule them, though this has never materialised.
China quickly overpowered the Indian military and occupied the area, claiming the area under administration and naming the region Aksai Chin. By this treaty, both countries agreed to settle all issues by peaceful means and mutual discussions within the framework of the UN Charter.
Until the ceasefire in the Line of Control was one of the most violence-prone de facto borders in the world and saw daily shelling, mortar fire, and machine gun exchanges between Indian and Pakistani troops and other militant groups.
Militancy The Simla Agreement had little bearing to events on the ground and there were increasingly organised uprisings. All have to some degree fractured into different, sometimes opposing factions, many of which have different objectives, views on how to resolve the conflict, and opinions on the use of violence.
In recent years their membership and influence has diminished.
A fourth militant group, the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, a secular and nationalist group, has sought full independence for Kashmir from both India and Pakistan, and increasingly found its support reduced over the past few decades.
The insurgents took advantage of the severe winter conditions and occupied vacant mountain peaks of the Kargil range. By blocking the highway, they wanted to cut off the only link between the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh.The Kashmir conflict not only continues to raise the spectre of war between India and Pakistan, but it also continues to produce serious human rights violations: summary executions, rape, and.
Over 50% of the population is in the Valley. A treaty renamed the mile border the Line of Control. Only two roads lead in and out of Srinagar, the capital of J&K. An Overview And Analysis Of The Kashmir Dispute Politics Essay.
Print Reference this This essay will analyse the ongoing dispute over Kashmir, which continues to stoke hostilities, and several skirmishes, in the region.
the father of Kashmiri nationalism, believed that one of the best resolutions to reconcile the Kashmir conflict was. Summary: India-Pakistan Conflict over Kashmir.
At the end of British occupation in , two countries stood where there once was one. Pakistan divided with the intention of being the nation for the Muslims of India. Kashmir: Conflict profile Born from the partition of India in , the conflict in Kashmir continues today, involving three nuclear powers - China, India and Pakistan - who are in dispute over the territory.
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in China has at times played a minor role. India and Pakistan have fought three wars over Kashmir, including the Indo-Pakistani Wars of .