Moreover it accepts the articles which are not submitted on child developmental stages such as social, behavioral and cognitive stages. Open access is a platform in which all articles are published online such as this journal, where everyone can access and view the articles with free of cost globally.
Children are usually referred to a psychiatrist or therapist because of complaints or concern about their behaviour or development expressed by a parent or some other adult.
Family problems, particularly difficulties in the parent-child relationship, are often an important causative factor in… Diagnosis and general considerations of treatment and prevention Diagnosis of the diseases of childhood involves special considerations and techniques; for example, in evaluating genetic disorders, not only the patient but his entire family may need to be examined.
Inapparent environmental causes of diseases, such as poisonings, must be considered and investigated thoroughly, by methods that at times resemble those of a detective. Diseases of the fetus may derive directly from disorders of the mother or may be caused by drugs administered to her.
Diagnostic techniques have been developed that permit sophisticated examination of the fetus despite its apparent inaccessibility. The withdrawal of a Childhood disorders amount of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus permits examination of fetal cells as well as the fluid itself.
Chromosomal and biochemical studies at various stages of development may help to anticipate problems in the postnatal period; they may indicate the need for immediate treatment of the fetus by such techniques as blood transfusion; or they may lead to the decision to terminate pregnancy because serious, untreatable disease has been recognized.
Other specialized techniques permit examination of the fetus by X-ray and ultrasound, and by electrocardiography and electroencephalography methods for observing and recording the electrical activity of the heart and the brain, respectively.
Fetal blood can be obtained for analysis, and certain techniques permit direct viewing of the fetus. Childhood disorders examination of the infant, inaccessibility is no special problem, but his small size and limited ability to communicate require special techniques and skills.
Of even more importance, however, is the fact that adult norms cannot be applied to younger age groups. Pediatric diagnosis requires knowledge of each stage of development, with regard not only to body size but also to body proportions, sexual development, the development and function of organs, biochemical composition of the body fluids, and the activity of enzymes.
The development of psychological and intellectual function is equally complex and requires special understanding. Since the various periods of growth and development differ so markedly from one another, they are divided for convenience into the following stages: Thus, it is of no concern if a month-old infant is unable to walk alone, although some infants are able to do so at nine months of age.
The crucial question is at what age one becomes concerned if a developmental milestone has not been reached. Five-year-old boys average 44 pounds 20 kilograms in weight but may vary from 33 to 53 pounds 15 to 24 kilograms.
The hemoglobin level that is of no concern in the three-month-old infant may reflect a serious state of anemia in the older child. The blood levels of certain enzymes and minerals differ markedly in the rapidly growing child from those in the late adolescent, whose growth is almost complete.
Failure of a year-old girl to have achieved menarche the beginning of menstruation may be indicative of no abnormality in sexual development but requires careful evaluation. Treatment of childhood disease requires similar considerations with regard to various stages of growth and development. Variation in drug dosage, for example, is based not only on body size but also on the distribution of the drug within the body, its rate of metabolism, and its rate of excretion, all of which change during various stages of development.
The inability of infants and small children to swallow pills and capsules necessitates the use of other forms and alternate routes of administration. Drug toxicity of importance at one stage of development may be of no concern at another; for example, the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline is best avoided in treatment of the child younger than age 10 because it is deposited in teeth, in which enamel is also being deposited, and stains them.
When permanent teeth are fully formed, the deposition of tetracycline no longer occurs. The delayed consequences of certain forms of treatment, especially with radioactive isotopes—substances that give off radiation in the process of breaking down into other substances—might be of no consequence in the case of an elderly person with a life expectancy of 10 or 20 years but might deter a physician from the use of such treatments for the infant with his whole life in front of him.
Finally, the nutritional requirements of the growing child must be considered when treatment of disease requires modification of the diet or administration of drugs that may affect the absorption or metabolism of essential nutrients.
The bone fracture that results in permanent deformity in the adult, for example, may heal with complete structural normality in the child, as continued growth results in remodeling and reshaping of the bone. Ultimately, the infant who has one kidney removed because of infection or tumour most likely will have entirely normal renal kidney function because the remaining kidney will increase its size and functional capacity with growth.
In contrast, removal of one kidney in the adult usually results in a residual functional capacity equal to 70 to 75 percent of that of two normal kidneys. The converse may also be true, however. The rapidly growing and maturing central nervous systemfor example, is particularly susceptible to injury during the first two or three years of life; also, adolescents may react unfavourably to psychological stresses that are tolerated readily by more mature individuals.
In the general consideration of childhood diseases, a final aspect that merits emphasis is the role of prevention. The major factors responsible for the decline in infant and childhood mortality rates over the past decades have been the development and application of preventive measures.
By the late 20th century, in most countries the death rate for infants under one year of age had decreased until it was scarcely more than a 10th of the rate in the s.Journal of Childhood & Developmental Disorders is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes articles on all aspects of developmental disorders.
Joseph Cubells, MD, PhD, serves as Director of Medical and Adult Services with the Emory Autism Center. He is also an Associate Professor in the departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Human Genetics. Childhood disorders, often labeled as developmental disorders or learning disorders, most often occur and are diagnosed when the child is of school-age.
Although some adults may also relate to some of the symptoms of these disorders, typically the disorder's symptoms need to have first appeared at some point in the person's childhood. What is apraxia of speech? Apraxia of speech (AOS)—also known as acquired apraxia of speech, verbal apraxia, or childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) when diagnosed in children—is a speech sound disorder.
Someone with AOS has trouble saying what he or she wants to say correctly and consistently. AOS is a neurological disorder that affects the brain pathways involved in planning the sequence of. The term childhood disease refers to disease that is contracted or becomes symptomatic before the age of 18 years old.
Many of these diseases can also be contracted by adults.. Some childhood diseases include: Diseases from three year to five year. Childhood Mental Disorders. Childhood disorders, often labeled as developmental disorders or learning disorders, most often occur and are diagnosed when the child is .