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You basically heat crude oil up, let it vaporize and then condense the vapour The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components.
Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation. The steps of fractional distillation are as follows: You heat the mixture of two or more substances liquids with different boiling points to a high temperature.
The mixture boils, forming vapor gases ; most substances go into the vapor phase. The vapor enters the bottom of a long column fractional distillation column that is filled with trays or plates.
The trays have many holes or bubble caps like a loosened cap on a soda bottle in them to allow the vapor to pass through. They increase the contact time between the vapor and the liquids in the column and help to collect liquids that form at various heights in the column.
There is a temperature difference across the column hot at the bottom, cool at the top. The vapor rises in the column.
As the vapor rises through the trays in the column, it cools.
The substance with the lowest boiling point will condense at the highest point in the column; substances with higher boiling points will condense lower in the column. The trays collect the various liquid fractions. The collected liquid fractions may pass to condensers, which cool them further, and then go to storage tanks, or they may go to other areas for further chemical processing.
Why is the mixture separated? What are the components used for?
Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. The fractions at the top of the fractionating column have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom. All of the fractions are processed further in other refining units. Fractional distillation is used to refine crude oil and produce diesel, kerosene, gasoline, naphtha (used in creating chemicals), and bitumen (used for roofs and roads). With this in mind, it’s easy to conclude that fractional distillation has greatly contributed to the advancement and modernization of human life. Essay on Oil & Plastics and Sustainability - How is this method used to help produce chemico-technical products (fuels,solvents, etc). The fractional distillation is when the crude oil get separated to a different parts, called fractions. The fractionating column is used to separate the crude oil, at the beginning the crude oil is heated at the.
Why is Mixture Separated? Below is a list of separated components and what they are used for: Petroleum gas Used for heating, cooking and making plastics.
Commonly known by the names methane, ethane, propane, butane. Naphtha or Ligroin Intermediate that will be further processed to make gasoline.Factional Distillation of Crude Oil Essay (iv) Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil By Blake Turner – Year 11 Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil Introduction Crude oil is the term for "unprocessed" oil, the stuff that comes out of the ground.
It is also known as petroleum. 1 (iv) Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil By Blake Turner – Year 11 Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil Introduction Crude oil is the term for “unprocessed” oil, the stuff that comes out of the ground.
Fractional distillation or petroleum refining is the process of separating crude oil into different components based on their hydrocarbon chains.
It is one of the most important major processes in .
Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil Essay Crude oil is a naturally occurring, unrefined petroleum product composed of hydrocarbon deposits. It is a fossil fuel, meaning that it was made naturally from decaying plants and animals. The purpose of this report is to study a case scenario involving the fractional distillation process and its potential hazards and risks.
INTRODUCTION In , the petroleum industry began with the successful drilling of the first commercial oil well and the opening of the first refinery to process the crude into kerosene.
8. 2. 1 (iv) Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil By Blake Turner – Year 11 Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil Introduction Crude oil is the term for “unprocessed” oil, the stuff that comes out of the ground.