October Criticism focused on the internet voting, suggesting the possibility of hacking and other subterfuge,  though there was no evidence that such hacking occurred.
Background The Democratic Republic of Congo formerly Zaire has a long history of conflict, but its recent crises can be traced to the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide.
Subsequent sections will address the pivotal role of the M23 rebels in the exacerbation of the DRC conflict, along with human rights abuses committed by all parties, including rape, sexual violence, and the use of child soldiers.
In addition, responses from the international community, regional organizations, and civil society will be outlined.
We must do better. Unable to agree on the implementation of a ceasefire however, a pattern of stalled negotiations emerged that continued through the fall of Indeed, children have often been recruited from refugee camps and used as combatants, sexual slaves, guards, and porters.
International Response As discussed in previous sections, horrific human rights abuses have been continually committed in the DRC, notably since the start of the First Congo War in Some of the greatest concerns have been over the recruitment of child soldiers, sexual violence, and the murder of civilians.
A parallel issue, however, is the larger security concern in the DRC, as violence in the Congo has spread instability to other states in the region, namely Rwanda and Uganda.
As such, the UN and wider international community have also been greatly involved in seeking a resolution to the DRC conflict, specifically in the past decade. Mapping Human Rights Violations The role of neighboring countries Rwanda and Uganda have been an underlying issue, as a UN Group of Experts found that both countries continued to support the M23 rebels in the fight against the FARDC and had violated terms of the arms embargo.
Rwanda and Uganda were accused of providing the M23 rebels with weapons, ammunition, intelligence and political advice, as well as deploying army troops to fight alongside the M After continuous warnings to stop such activities, the United Statesthe European Union and Britain cut military aid to Rwanda in October International Conference on the Great Lakes Region and the February Framework Agreement Following the M23 rebellion, it was clear to national leaders in the region that something needed to be done in order to address the mounting violence in and around the eastern DRC.
The effort to promote stability and peace, which includes implementing successful Disarmament, Demobilization, Repatriation DDR and Reintegration and Resettlement RR programs, as well as further targeted operations against the FDLR, has been stalled by ceaseless technical issues and a lack of determined will.
While this development is encouraging, it is still too early to determine the effectiveness of the initiative.
Early challenges have already emerged, as the UN threatened to pull their support should the Congolese government refuse to replace two military commanders accused of previous human rights violations.
The government has yet refused to comply. In other developments, recent turmoil arose over alleged attempts by the current government to delay the national elections, in which current President Joseph Kabila would be unable to participate due to a two-term limit.Fourth Periodic Report of the United States of America to the United Nations Committee on Human Rights Concerning the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
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Watch breaking news videos, viral videos and original video clips on metin2sell.com Transformational Leaders and Social Change: IFP Impacts in Africa and the Middle East.
Sep 19, The fourth report from our year tracking study of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP), Transformational Leaders and Social Change provides important insights into the personal, organizational, community, and societal impacts of IFP alumni in Kenya, Nigeria, Palestine.