Back to Top Endnotes 1Wade, S. The role of text in classroom learning. References Click the "References" link above to hide these references. Reading between the lines:
Here are a number of possibilities: Develop intuition and deepen understanding of concepts. Apply concepts learned in class to new situations.
Develop experimental and data analysis skills. Learn to use scientific apparatus. Learn to estimate statistical errors and recognize systematic errors.
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Develop reporting skills written and oral. Practice collaborative problem solving. Exercise curiosity and creativity by designing a procedure to test a hypothesis.
Better appreciate the role of experimentation in science.
Test important laws and rules. Developing an effective laboratory requires appropriate space and equipment and extraordinary effort from the department's most creative teachers.
Still, those who have invested in innovative introductory laboratory programs report very encouraging results: Many science departments have implemented innovative laboratory programs in their introductory courses.
We encourage you to consult the organizations and publications listed in the Appendices. Education sessions at professional society meetings are another opportunity to get good ideas for labs in your discipline. Each lab is two weeks long, with the equipment and animals available for the entire time.
All of the materials that students could plausibly need are stored on shelves for easy and immediate access. In the first hour, we discuss the lab and possible hypotheses, and look over the materials at hand.
Each group then formulates an initial plan, obtains approval for their plan, and conducts the experiment. The most flexible labs utilize computer-controlled stimuli. In one lab, students are asked to determine to what features of prey a toad responds.
Although they begin with live crickets and worms, they are encouraged to use a computer library of "virtual" crickets and toads. Students are given instructions for making new prey models, or modifying existing ones, to test the toad's response to different features.
The library includes variations of shape, motion, color, three-dimensionality, size, and so on, plus a variety of cricket chirps and other calls. In general, students quickly discover that virtual crickets work almost as well as real ones-better in that they provide more data since the toad never fills up!
A simple statistical program on the computers helps minimize the drudgery of data analysis, enabling the students to concentrate on experimental design and results rather than tedious computations.
A number of other labs in the course make use of computer-generated and modified stimuli. Labs using this strategy deal with mate recognition in crickets and fish, competitor recognition in fish, predator recognition in chicks and fish, imprinting in ducklings, color change in lizards, and hemispheric dominance in humans.
Page 18 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. The experiments were devised using a modified "jigsaw" technique, in which each student in a group is assigned a particular part of a lesson or unit and is responsible for helping the other members of the group learn that material.
The week prior to the laboratory, students were given lists of objectives and preparatory work that were divided into three parts.
Students decided how to divide the responsibility for the preparatory and laboratory tasks, but were informed that the scores from their post-laboratory exams would be averaged, and that all members of a group would receive the same grade. Two control sections of the same laboratory were conducted in a traditional manner, with students working independently.
All four groups of students were part of the same lecture class, and there were no significant differences in age, gender balance, or previous number of chemistry classes.
Although the control sections had an overall GPA higher than the cooperative learning sections 2.What to include in an employee handbook.
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