Study With the legalization of marijuana in several states, increased use for both medicinal and recreational purposes has been documented in pregnant and breastfeeding women. Although national organizations like the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that breastfeeding mothers do not use marijuana, there has been a lack of specific data to support health or neurodevelopmental concerns in infants as a result of exposure to tetrahydrocannabinol THC or other components of marijuana via breast milk. Fifty-four samples from 50 women who used marijuana either daily, weekly or sporadically -- with inhalation being the primary method of intake were examined. We don't have strong, published data to support advising against use of marijuana while breastfeeding, and if women feel they have to choose, we run the risk of them deciding to stop breastfeeding -- something we know is hugely beneficial for both mom and baby," said Christina Chambers, PhD, MPH, principal investigator of the study, professor in the Department of Pediatrics at UC San Diego School of Medicine and director of clinical research at Rady Children's Hospital-San Diego.
Feminization biology There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiolmay arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase.
This side-effect is temporary; the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing AAS use as normal production of sperm resumes. Virilization Female-specific side effects include increases in body hairpermanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitorisand temporary decreases in menstrual cycles.
Alteration of fertility and ovarian cysts can also occur in females. The kidney damage in the bodybuilders has similarities to that seen in morbidly obese patients, but appears to be even more severe.
Neuropsychiatric[ edit ] Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs.
AAS were ranked 19th in dependence, 9th in physical harm, and 15th in social harm. Anabolic—androgenic steroids abuse A review in CNS Drugs determined that "significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, maniaand less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse.
Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS". Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disordersand progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.
As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit. Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use.
The drug response was highly variable. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures.Effects of Animal Source Foods, with Emphasis on Milk, in the Diet of Children in Low-Income Countries Allen L.H.
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WOMEN IN ADVERTISEMENTS In modern societies, women and men have equal rights to law in most areas such as education and employment. Howewer, there is an unuequality as gender between male and female.
Howewer, there is an unuequality as gender between male and female. Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, difficulty urinating, and heart effects such as QT prolongation (see above.
Breastfeeding women can use nicotine supplements to aid in tobacco cessation, although it is best to use the lowest possible dose because of the adverse effects of nicotine on the infant and.
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