The movement roughly comprises the years from tothough there is ample disagreement regarding even this simple point. The name given to the period is borrowed from the royal matriarch of England, Queen Victoria, who sat on throne from to One has difficulty determining with any accuracy where the Romantic Movement of the early nineteenth century leaves off and the Victorian Period begins because these traditions have so many aspects in common. Likewise, identifying the point where Victorianism gives way completely to Modernism is no easy task.
Thus, they illuminate the various types of mentalities or ideologies that inform African literature.
In addition, these works help the reader determine if a novelist's portrayal of African society fully reflects its social relations, political arrangements, and economic factors.
These critical writings also help in the debate on the definition of African literature. For they bring out the historical connections that make it possible to analyze African literature dealing with pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial phases of African history.
Rodney, Cabral and Ngugi claim that African literature exists in a historical continuum. For example, neocolonialism prevails today in Africa because of the continuation after "independence" of the economic, political and social practices established by colonialism. An analysis of the economic, political and social contradictions created by colonialism is, therefore, necessary in understanding and effectively countering neocolonialism.
For the contradictions created by colonialism are still realities in contemporary Africa's development. Walter Rodney's How Europe Underdeveloped Africa analyzes the colonial relations of production -- and the economic and political contradictions -- that produced Africa's underdevelopment and continue to plague Africa today.
Rodney, who describes colonialism as a "one-armed bandit," claims that colonialism, more than anything else, underdeveloped Africa. According to him, colonialism laid the roots of neocolonialism in Africa by creating Africa's economic dependency on the international capitalist system.
The introduction of capitalist relations of production and distribution, -- for instance, the International Trade Commodity ITC exchange systems and values -- created such dependency. Many works of African literature record the kind of exploitation Rodney descrives. In Mayombe, for example, the Narrator notes that My land is rich in coffee, but my father was always a poor peasant.
1. Use examples from the lessons to answer the following question in two to three complete paragraphs. To what degree did the arrival of the Portuguese impact the Swahili Coast in each of the following areas? Politically Socially Economically 2. Use examples from the lessons to answer the following question in two to three complete paragraphs/5(25). Study art appreciation final flashcards from Kimberly W. on StudyBlue. site-specific works are distinguished from other artworks in that they are produced ____. in or for one location. Surrealism began as a literary movement after World War I, and the group based their writings on the nonrational using a technique known as. Canterbury Tales possible Essay topics. STUDY. PLAY. What are examples of devices in literary works? rhetorical analysis, allusion, setting, plot devices, and figures of speech The knight was considered the top of the social ladder, while the peasants and laborers were more towards the bottom. Of course the clergy were considered part.
In Dembos, men lived wretchedly in the midst of wealth. Coffee was everywhere, hugging the trees. But they stole from us in the prices, sweat was paid for with a few worthless coins.
There was little development of local industry a trend that persists in contemporary Africa. I wouldn't mind, son of Gathoni, If after selling away our labor, Our village benefited. But look now at this village! There is no property, there is no wealth. The narrator says that "the road was a world apart from ours, and it was chance alone which had made it brush against our city; it was certainly not by any wish of ours.
In Ferdinand Oyono's The Old Man and the Medal, the road, constructed by forced black labor, symbolizes the visible exploitative means linking Africa to Europe.
Rodney notes also that the social services in colonial Africa reflected the pattern of domination and exploitation geared toward the well-being of the settlers. In Mayombe the narrator says: You earn twenty escudos a day, for chopping down trees with an axe.
And how much does the boss earn for each tree? What does the boss do to earn this money? So, how can he earn many thousands a day and give you twenty escudos?
What right has he? This is colonialist exploitation.
Rodney observes that the African dependency upon the European also ultimately produced neocolonial class stratification and Africans who manipulated the colonial economic structures for their own benefit. In Mission to Kala, the colonial authorities nominate the chief of Vimili who goes on to live an opulent life at the expense of the people: The colonial Administration who had nominated him in the first place buttered him up.
In return, he obeyed their commands like a robot and knew they would not throw him out. In the days of the forced labor gangs he had been feared by everyone because he betrayed fugitives to the authorities and acted as an informer. He used our traditional tribal hierarchy as a vehicle for his underhand intrigues, and flouted our laws and customs when he no longer needed them.
Medza's father also becomes rich from collecting money and livestock from his insolvent debtors. He is, to Medza, an epitome of the successful grafting of western hypocrisy and commercial materialism onto a first rate African intelligence.The two pieces of literary work are in different genres: poem and essay respectively.
They are classical examples of the use of satire to pass a message. Both works touch on . In addition, these works help the reader determine if a novelist's portrayal of African society fully reflects its social relations, political arrangements, and economic factors.
These critical writings also help in the debate on the definition of African literature. Anna Karenina is in many ways a recognizable throwback to the genre of “family novels” popular in Russia several decades earlier, which were out of fashion by the s.
The Russian family novel portrayed the benefits and comforts of family togetherness and domestic bliss, often . 1. Use examples from the lessons to answer the following question in two to three complete paragraphs.
To what degree did the arrival of the Portuguese impact the Swahili Coast in each of the following areas? Politically Socially Economically 2. Use examples from the lessons to answer the following question in two to three complete paragraphs/5(22). Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more.
Get started now! Peasants in the Middle Ages The Middle Ages are an extremely popular topic for both fiction and nonfiction writers alike. It is filled with rich and intriguing aspects of life along with romance and mystery.