Comparison of the arithmetic mean, median and mode of two skewed log-normal distributions. Geometric visualization of the mode, median and mean of an arbitrary probability density function. The mean of a set of observations is the arithmetic average of the values; however, for skewed distributionsthe mean is not necessarily the same as the middle value medianor the most likely value mode.
For current news and resources see the Framework WordPress site Introduction This Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education Framework grows out of a belief that information literacy as an educational reform movement will realize its potential only through a richer, more complex set of core ideas.
During the fifteen years since the publication of the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education,1 academic librarians and their partners in higher education associations have developed learning outcomes, tools, and resources that some institutions have deployed to infuse information literacy concepts and skills into their curricula.
However, the rapidly changing higher education environment, along with the dynamic and often uncertain information ecosystem in which all of us work and live, require new attention to be focused on foundational ideas about that ecosystem.
Students have a greater role and responsibility in creating new knowledge, in understanding the contours and the changing dynamics of the world of information, and in using information, data, and scholarship ethically.
Teaching faculty have a greater responsibility in designing curricula and assignments that foster enhanced engagement with the core ideas about information and scholarship The value of education and a their disciplines.
Librarians have a greater responsibility in identifying core ideas within their own knowledge domain that can extend learning for students, in creating a new cohesive curriculum for information literacy, and in collaborating more extensively with faculty.
The Framework offered here is called a framework intentionally because it is based on a cluster of interconnected core concepts, with flexible options for implementation, rather than on a set of standards or learning outcomes, or any prescriptive enumeration of skills. At the heart of this Framework are conceptual understandings that organize many other concepts and ideas about information, research, and scholarship into a coherent whole.
These conceptual understandings are informed by the work of Wiggins and McTighe,2 which focuses on essential concepts and questions in developing curricula, and also by threshold concepts3 which are those ideas in any discipline that are passageways or portals to enlarged understanding or ways of thinking and practicing within that discipline.
This Framework draws upon an ongoing Delphi Study that has identified several threshold concepts in information literacy,4 but the Framework has been molded using fresh ideas and emphases for the threshold concepts. Two added elements illustrate important learning goals related to those concepts: The Framework is organized into six frames, each consisting of a concept central to information literacy, a set of knowledge practices, and a set of dispositions.
The six concepts that anchor the frames are presented alphabetically: Authority Is Constructed and Contextual Information Creation as a Process Information Has Value Scholarship as Conversation Searching as Strategic Exploration Neither the knowledge practices nor the dispositions that support each concept are intended to prescribe what local institutions should do in using the Framework; each library and its partners on campus will need to deploy these frames to best fit their own situation, including designing learning outcomes.
For the same reason, these lists should not be considered exhaustive. In addition, this Framework draws significantly upon the concept of metaliteracy,7 which offers a renewed vision of information literacy as an overarching set of abilities in which students are consumers and creators of information who can participate successfully in collaborative spaces.
This Framework depends on these core ideas of metaliteracy, with special focus on metacognition,9 or critical self-reflection, as crucial to becoming more self-directed in that rapidly changing ecosystem. Information literacy is the set of integrated abilities encompassing the reflective discovery of information, the understanding of how information is produced and valued, and the use of information in creating new knowledge and participating ethically in communities of learning.
The Framework opens the way for librarians, faculty, and other institutional partners to redesign instruction sessions, assignments, courses, and even curricula; to connect information literacy with student success initiatives; to collaborate on pedagogical research and involve students themselves in that research; and to create wider conversations about student learning, the scholarship of teaching and learning, and the assessment of learning on local campuses and beyond.
Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Threshold concepts are core or foundational concepts that, once grasped by the learner, create new perspectives and ways of understanding a discipline or challenging knowledge domain.
|How Do I Find?||Full Answer Education is an essential part of intellectual freedom, and one of its main values is improving how students view, exist in and participate in the world. Because education is a social event for most people, it encourages sharing of ideas and experiences among students, which helps students become better members of the community by teaching morals, ethics and community responsibility.|
Such concepts produce transformation within the learner; without them, the learner does not acquire expertise in that field of knowledge. Threshold concepts can be thought of as portals through which the learner must pass in order to develop new perspectives and wider understanding.
Meyer, Ray Land, and Caroline Baillie.
Meyer, Ray Land, and Caroline Baillie, ix—xlii. For information on this unpublished, in-progress Delphi Study on threshold concepts and information literacy, conducted by Lori Townsend, Amy Hofer, Silvia Lu, and Korey Brunetti, see http: Libraries and the Academy 11, no.
Knowledge practices are the proficiencies or abilities that learners develop as a result of their comprehending a threshold concept.
Generally, a disposition is a tendency to act or think in a particular way.
More specifically, a disposition is a cluster of preferences, attitudes, and intentions, as well as a set of capabilities that allow the preferences to become realized in a particular way. Metaliteracy expands the scope of traditional information skills determine, access, locate, understand, produce, and use information to include the collaborative production and sharing of information in participatory digital environments collaborate, produce, and share.
This approach requires an ongoing adaptation to emerging technologies and an understanding of the critical thinking and reflection required to engage in these spaces as producers, collaborators, and distributors. Mackey and Trudi E. Reinventing Information Literacy to Empower Learners.
Frames These six frames are presented alphabetically and do not suggest a particular sequence in which they must be learned. Authority is constructed in that various communities may recognize different types of authority.
It is contextual in that the information need may help to determine the level of authority required. Experts understand that authority is a type of influence recognized or exerted within a community.
Experts view authority with an attitude of informed skepticism and an openness to new perspectives, additional voices, and changes in schools of thought. An understanding of this concept enables novice learners to critically examine all evidence—be it a short blog post or a peer-reviewed conference proceeding—and to ask relevant questions about origins, context, and suitability for the current information need.
Thus, novice learners come to respect the expertise that authority represents while remaining skeptical of the systems that have elevated that authority and the information created by it.There is a further distinction between explicit values education and implicit values education where: explicit values education is associated with those different pedagogies, methods or programmes that teachers or educators use in order to create learning experiences for students when it comes to .
While America prominently places value in education in today’s society, including those views held by its citizens and governments, precise monetary value attributed to the varying tiers of the American education system is extraordinarily debatable.
For you, value could mean something different, such as the social benefits you may get from having an education. Read on to explore some perspectives on education's value. Schools offering Education degrees can also be found in these popular choices.
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